VOLKOVYSK (Pol. Wolkowysk), city in Grodno oblast, Belorus. Jews were first mentioned as living in the environs of Volkovysk in 1577. In 1766 the Jews paying poll tax in the city and its environs numbered 1,282. Volkovysk was annexed by Russia in 1795, and by 1797 there were 1,477 Jews and Karaites, comprising 64% of the population. There were 1,429 Jews in 1847; 5,445 (64% of the total) in 1897; and 5,130 (46%) in 1921. In the 19th century the Jews engaged in shopkeeping, crafts, and marketing agricultural products; they founded textile plants, sawmills, a brewery, a tannery, and manufactured tobacco products. Many Jews earned their livelihood by providing services and purveying to the nearby Russian army camp. The Jewish proletariat began to organize in 1897 under the influence of the bund , which began its activities when a strike broke out in the tanneries. A large yeshivah was founded in Volkovysk in 1887 and existed up to World War I. Between the world wars all the Jewish parties were active in the city, as well as a branch of He-Ḥalutz . The educational institutions of the community comprised a school and kindergarten of the tarbut network, a Hebrew high school named Herzliyya (founded 1927), Taḥkemoni and Yavneh schools, a talmud torah, and a CISHO (see education ) school. There was also a cooperative farmers' union (with 35 farms) for the purchase of equipment and marketing of their produce. Between 1924 and 1929 a Yiddish weekly, Volkovisker Lebn, was published. The rabbis of the community included Jonathan b. mordecai eliasberg in the 1890s; isaac elhanan spektor lived there in the 1830s. eliyahu golomb , Raphael Klatzkin (the Habimah actor; d. 1987), and Naḥman Rachmilewitz (Lithuanian minister for Jewish affairs), were originally from Volkovysk. (Dov Rubin) -Holocaust Period With the outbreak of the German-Soviet war (June 22, 1941), Volkovysk was heavily bombed by the Germans. Several hundred Jews were among those killed. A few escaped with the retreating Soviet army. From the start of the Nazi occupation many Jews were massacred, some of them denounced by Poles. A ghetto was set up on Dec. 13, 1941. In May 1942 about 2,000 Jews were exterminated near the town. The head of the judenrat , Ajzik Weinberg, attempted to alleviate the suffering of the community and established contact with the partisans.   A Jewish underground movement organized groups to join the partisans in the forests. Discovering that Jewish doctors had helped the partisans, the Germans arrested all 11 doctors in the ghetto, severely tortured them, and, when they refused to denounce their colleagues, hanged them in the town square. On Nov. 2, 1942 all of the Jews were rounded up in a former prisoner-of war camp, joined within a few days by all the Jews of the surrounding areas – a total of 20,000 persons. They lived in overcrowded huts below ground level. By the end of 1942, about 18,000 people were deported for extermination to the death camp of treblinka . The Volkovysk camp was liquidated on Jan. 12, 1943, and the remnants of the town's community were transferred to auschwitz . (Aharon Weiss) -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Ḥurban Wolkowysk (1946); B. Wasiutyński, Ludność żydowska w Polsce w wiekach XIX i XX (1930), 83, 87, 89; I. Schiper, Dzieje handlu żydowskiego na ziemiach polskich (1937), index; O. Margolis, Geshikhte fun Yidn in Rusland (1930), 281; M. Einhorn (ed.), Volkovisker Yisker-Bukh, 2 vols. (1949); J.S. Hertz et al. (eds.), Geshikhte fun Bund, 1 (1956), 38.

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Volkovysk — Sp Valkaviskas Ap Ваўкавыск/Vawkavysk baltarusiškai (gudiškai) Ap Волковыск/Volkovysk rusiškai L V Baltarusija …   Pasaulio vietovardžiai. Internetinė duomenų bazė

  • Volkovysk — ▪ Belarus       city, Hrodno oblast (province), western Belarus. It dates from the 13th century as a fortified point on the frontier between the principality of Hrodno and the grand duchy of Lithuania, in which locale it suffered many reversals… …   Universalium

  • Vawkavysk — or Volkovyvsk ( be. Ваўкавыск, ru. Волковыск, Lithuanian: Volkoviskas, pl. Wolkowysk) is a town in the Hrodna Province of Belarus. It is the center of Vaŭkavysk district and has a population of around 48,000.Volkovysk is an old town with over a… …   Wikipedia

  • Wolkowysk — Waukawysk Ваўкавыск Волковыск Wołkowysk …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Waukawysk — Ваўкавыск Wappen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Zerach Warhaftig — MKs Date of birth = 2 February 1906 Place of birth = Volkovysk, Russian Empire Year of Aliyah = 1947 Date of death = 26 September 2002 Knesset(s) = 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th Party = National Religious Party Former parties =… …   Wikipedia

  • Benjamin Blumenfeld — (24 May 1884, Volkovysk – 5 March 1947, Moscow) was a Russian chess master.Born in Volkovysk, Belarus (like Dawid Janowski), then Russia. In 1905/06, he tied for 2nd 3rd with Akiba Rubinstein, behind Gersz Salwe, in St. Petersburg (4th RUS ch).… …   Wikipedia

  • Belostock Offensive — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Belostock Offensive caption= partof=Operation Bagration place=Poland date=July 5, 1944 ndash; July 27, 1944 result=Soviet victory combatant1= combatant2=flagicon|USSR Soviet Union commander1=)… …   Wikipedia

  • Liste des principautés slaves de l'Est — Les anciennes principautés des Slaves de l Est ou principautés russes, ukrainiennes et biélorusses se sont développées du IXe siècle au XVIe siècle, autour de la principauté centrale de Kiev. Sommaire 1 Sud 2 Ouest 3 Est …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Волковысское гетто — Мемориальный знак в уроч …   Википедия

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.